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After his assassination in 1263, pagan Lithuania was a target of the Christian crusades of the Teutonic Knights and the Livonian Order.
Despite the devastating century-long struggle with the Orders, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania expanded rapidly, overtaking former Slavic principalities of Kievan Rus'.
It implied that Lithuania, the fiercely independent land, was one of the last pagan areas of Europe to adopt Christianity.
From the mid-16th to the mid-17th centuries, culture, arts, and education flourished, fueled by the Renaissance and the Protestant Reformation.
In 1385, the Grand Duke Jogaila accepted Poland's offer to become its king.
Jogaila embarked on gradual Christianization of Lithuania and established a personal union between Poland and Lithuania.
The geopolitical situation between the west and the east determined the multicultural and multi-confessional character of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
The ruling elite practised religious tolerance and Chancery Slavonic language was used as an auxiliary language to the Latin for official documents.
), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.